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Origin of Methodologies

Object Orientation is a much more natural mechanism for expressing business and
information system requirements. It is, amongst other things, the most natural modelling paradigm that can be used in the analysis and design of systems.

Methodologies have developed and taken on different shapes with different emphases over the years. An Object-Oriented methodology should evolve from a Meta Methodology Design

Platform into the Object-Oriented flavour in which it needs to be represented.
As Method Engineers it is our job to model the Meta Designs of requirements for business tools that would cater for:

  • Analysis

  • Design

  • Testing

  • Implementation

  • Quality Assurance

  • Measurement

  • Usage

  • Control

  • Knowledge Utilisation (Business System Encyclopedia)

  • Project Management

  • Organisation Behavioral Management

This Meta Design that represents the requirements for business tools is an architectural design platform for methodologies. In this instance, we don’t first identify business modelling or measurement techniques that we want to use, and then incorporate them into methodologies. We first design the Meta Model of the business tools that we require to deliver the results mentioned above, then we use a technique called Functional Effect Back Tracking to cut this Meta Design into natural building blocks. Each of these natural building blocks represents an individual business requirement. It is now relatively easy to design a technique that would deliver that desired result.


In other words, the Meta Model was first established and then the techniques were derived from that. This will enable us to establish different paradigms of technique sets to deliver the required results. It is possible to develop an ordinary structured technique set as a set of business tools. Alternatively, we could utilise the same architectural foundation that the Meta Model represents and design an Object-Oriented technique set as a set of business tools.


Thus, our Meta Model can be projected onto a Structured Analysis and Design technique set as well as onto an Object-Oriented Analysis and Design technique set. It is possible to affect this because our point of departure is correct.


In a number of other cases organisations migrated their Structured Analysis and Design methodologies into a so-called Object-Oriented methodology. Our viewpoint on this is that their point of departure was wrong. The mere fact that you attempt to “Migrate” an already insufficient, outdated and crippled set of techniques into a paradigm for which it wasn’t designed substantiates our viewpoint.


The technique set that should be aimed for must address a number of components/facets.

Object Orientation is a design philosophy that enables one to construct solutions, which consist out of interchangeable components. Each component must be able to contain the change effect within itself.

Object Orientation

The set of hardware, software, communication and standards an organisation  uses to build its information systems.


Model of a

Meta Model

Mathematically derived algorithm forming part of the Attribute Dependency Diagram (ADD) techniques.

Functional Effect Back Tracking

Panels on the Pyramids


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